Okay kiddo, have you ever played with a straw and tried to see things through it by looking straight from one end of it to the other? That's kind of what fiber optic sensors are like, but much much much more sophisticated.
You see, fiber optic sensors use really thin and long strands of glass or plastic called fibers. The fiber optic sensor is made up of two parts: the fiber and the photo detector. The fiber is bundled up in a cable and the ends of the strands of fiber are connected to the photo detector.
What makes this sensor special is that light can travel through the fiber in a way that allows it to measure the conditions around it. When the sensor is exposed to certain levels of heat, pressure, or other changes in its environment, the light that travels along the fiber also changes. The photo detector then measures these changes and sends information about them to a computer or display.
These sensors are really useful in lots of different fields. For example, they can be used to measure the temperature of a room or detect when a machine is about to break. They are also used in medical applications to monitor patients' heart rates or blood pressure.
So, in short, fiber optic sensors are like really thin straws that use light to measure what's happening around them, like how hot or cold it is, if there's pressure, and other things. They're super cool and can be used in lots of different ways to help us learn more about the environment around us.