Have you ever played with building blocks or Legos? Model-based reasoning is like playing with building blocks, but instead of blocks, we are using models.
A model is like a tiny version of something else, usually something that is too big or complicated to play with. For example, if we want to understand how a car works, we can make a model car that is small enough to hold in our hand. Then we can take it apart and see the different parts that make it work.
Using models is a way of studying things that are too complicated to understand all at once. It helps us break them down into smaller parts and see how they work together.
When we use models to understand something, we are doing model-based reasoning. We are using our knowledge of how the models work to make educated guesses about how the real thing works.
For example, let's say we want to understand how a bird flies. We can make a model of a bird by cutting out paper wings and taping them to a stick. Then we can wave the stick up and down to see how the wings move. We can see that the wings create lift, which makes the bird go up.
Using this model, we can reason that real birds also create lift with their wings to fly. Even though real birds are much more complicated than our paper model, we can use what we learned from the model to understand how they work.
So, model-based reasoning is like playing with models to learn about things that are too complicated to understand all at once. It helps us break things down into smaller parts and make educated guesses about how they work.